Publications

Peer reviewed publications from projects that received field support from IDPO-IDDO. For a list of technical drilling documents, visit the Library.

Publications

The following list of peer reviewed publications are from projects that received field support from IDPO-IDDO. For a list of technical drilling documents, visit the Library.

2018

  1. Bereiter B, Shackleton S, Baggenstos D, Kawamura K, Severinghaus J (2018) Mean global ocean temperatures during the last glacial transition, Nature, 553, 39-44, doi:10.1038/nature25152

2017

  1. Aarons SM, Aciego SM, Arendt CA, Blakowski MA, Steigmeyer A, Gabrielli P, Sierra-Hernandez MR, Beaudon E, Delmonte B, Baccolo G, May NW and Pratt KA (2017) Dust composition changes from Taylor Glacier (East Antarctica) during the last glacial-interglacial transition: A multi-proxy approach. Quaternary Science Reviews, 162, 60-71, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2017.03.011
  2. Baggenstos D, Bauska TK, Severinghaus JP, Lee JE, Schaefer H, Buizert C, Brook EJ, Shackleton S and Petrenko VV (2017, in review) Atmospheric gas records from Taylor Glacier, Antarctica, reveal ancient ice with ages spanning the entire last glacial cycle. Clim. Past Discuss., doi:10.5194/cp-2017-25. 2017
  3. D'Andrilli J, Foreman CM, Sigl M, Priscu JC and McConnell JR (2017) A 21 000-year record of fluorescent organic matter markers in the WAIS Divide ice core. Clim. Past, 13, 533-544, doi:10.5194/cp-13-533-2017
  4. Dunbar NW, Iverson NA, Van Eaton AR, Sigl M, Alloway BV, Kurbatov AV, Mastin LG, McConnell JR, and Wilson CJN (2017) New Zealand supereruption provides time marker for the Last Glacial Maximum in Antarctica, Scientific Reports, 7:12238, doi:10.1038/s41598-017-11758-0
  5. Iverson NA, Lieb-Lappen R, Dunbar NW, Obbard R, Kim E, and Golden E (2017) The first physical evidence of subglacial volcanism under the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Scientific Reports, 7:11457, doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-11515-3
  6. Jones TR, Cuffey KM, White JWC, Steig EJ, Buizert C, Markle BR, McConnell JR, Sigl M (2017) Water Isotope Diffusion in the WAIS Divide Ice Core During the Holocene and Last Glacial. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, 122, 290–309, doi:10.1002/2016JF003938
  7. Kluskiewicz D, Waddington E, Anandakrishnan S, Voigt D, Matsuika K and McCarthy M (2017) Sonic methods for measuring crystal orientation fabric in ice, and results from the West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) Divide. Journal of Glaciology, 1-15, doi:10.1017/jog.2017.20
  8. Lamp JL and Marchant DR (2017) Vapor transport and sublimation on Mullins Glacier, Antarctica. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 465, 82-91, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2017.02.016
  9. McConnell JR, Burke A, Dunbar NW, Kohler P, Thomas JL, Arienzo MM, Chellman NJ, Maselli OJ, Sigl M, Adkins JF, Baggenstos D, Burkhart JF, Brook EJ, Buizert C, Cole-Dai J, Fudge TJ, Knorr G, Graf H-F, Grieman MM, Iverson N, McGwire KC, Mulvaney R, Paris G, Rhodes RH, Saltzman ES, Severinghaus JP, Steffensen JP, Taylor KC, and Winckler G (2017) Synchronous volcanic eruptions and abrupt climate change ∼17.7 ka plausibly linked by stratospheric ozone depletion, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114(38), 10035-10040, doi:10.1073/pnas.1705595114
  10. Miller O, Solomon DK, Miège C, Koenig L, Forster R, Schmerr N, Ligtenberg SRM, Montgomery L (2017) Direct evidence of meltwater flow within a firn aquifer in Southeast Greenland. Geophysical Research Letters, 44, doi:10.1002/2017GL075707
  11. Petrenko VV, Smith AM, Schaefer H, Riedel K, Brook E, Baggenstos D, Harth C, Hua Q, Buizert C, Schilt A, Fain X, Mitchell L, Bauska T, Orsi A, Weiss RF, Severinghaus JP (2017) Minimal geological methane emissions during the Younger Dryas–Preboreal abrupt warming event. Nature, 548, 443-446, doi:10.1038/nature23316
  12. Rhodes RH, Brook EJ, McConnell JR, Blunier T, Sime CL, Fain X and Mulvaney R (2017) Atmospheric methane variability: Centennial-scale signals in the Last Glacial Period. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 31, doi:10.1002/ 2016GB005570.
  13. Swanger KM (2017) Buried ice in Kennar Valley: a late Pleistocene remnant of Taylor Glacier. Antarctic Science, 1–13. 31 January 2017, doi:10.1017/S0954102016000687
  14. Winski D, Osterberg E, Ferris D, Kreutz K, Wake C, Campbell S, Hawley R, Roy S, Birkel S, Introne D, Handley M (2017) Industrial-age doubling of snow accumulation in the Alaska Range linked to tropical ocean warming, Scientific Reports, 7:17869, doi:10.1038/s41598-017-18022-5

2016

  1. Bauska TK, Baggenstos D, Brook EJ, Mix AC, Marcott SA, Petrenko VV, Schaefer H, Severinghaus JP, Lee JE (2016) Carbon isotopes characterize rapid changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide during the last deglaciation, Proceedings of the National Academies of Sciences, early online publication, 1-6, doi:10.1073/pnas.1513868113
  2. Fegyveresi JM, Alley RB, Fitzpatrick JJ, Cuffey KM, McConnell JR, Voigt DE, Spencer MK, Stevens NT (2016) Five millennia of surface temperatures and ice-core bubble characteristics from the WAIS Divide deep core, West Antarctica, Paleoceanography, (doi: 10.1002/2015PA002851)
  3. Fudge TJ, Markle BR, Cuffey K, Buizert C, Taylor K, Steig EJ, Waddington E, Conway H, Koutnik M (2016) Variable relationship between accumulation and temperature in West Antarctica for the past 31,000 years, Geophysical Research Letters, 43(8), 3795-3803 (doi:10.1002/2016GL068356)
  4. Fudge TJ, Taylor KC, Waddington EW, Fitzpatrick JJ, Conway H (2016) Electrical stratigraphy of the WAIS Divide ice core: Identification of centimeter-scale irregular layering, Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, 121, 1218-1229 (doi: 10.1002/2016JF003845)
  5. Klein ES, Nolan M, McConnell J, Sigl M, Cherry J, Young J, Welker JM (2016) McCall Glacier record of Arctic climate change: Interpreting a northern Alaska ice core with regional water isotopes. Quaternary Science Reviews, 131, 274-284 (doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2015.07.030)
  6. Koutnik M, Fudge TJ, Conway H, Waddington Ed, Neumann T, Cuffey K, Buizert C, Taylor K (2016) Holocene accumulation and ice flow near the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide ice-core site, Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, 121 (doi:10.1002/2015JF003668)
  7. Luthra T, Anandakrishnan S, Winberry JP, Alley RB, Holschuh N(2016) Basal characteristics of the main sticky spot on the ice plain of Whillans Ice Stream, Antarctica, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 440, 12-19 (doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2016.01.035)
  8. Petrenko VV, Severinghaus JP, Schaefer H, Smith AM, Kuhl T, Baggenstos D, Hua Q, Brook EJ, Rose P, Kulin R, Bauska T, Harth C, Buizert C, Orsi A, Emanuele G, Lee JE, Brailsford G, Keeling R, Weiss RF (2016) Measurements of 14C in ancient ice from Taylor Glacier, Antarctica constrain in situ cosmogenic 14CH4 and 14CO production rates, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 177, 62–77 (doi:10.1016/j.gca.2016.01.004)
  9. Santibanez PA, McConnell JR, Priscu JC (2016) A flow cytometric method to measure prokaryotic records in ice cores: an example from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide drilling site, Journal of Glaciology, 62(234), 655-673 (doi:10.1017/jog.2016.50)
  10. Sigl M, Ferris D, Fudge TJ, Winstrup M, Cole-Dai J, McConnell JR, Taylor KC, Welten KC, Woodruff TE, Adolphi F, Brook EJ, Bisiaux M, Buizert C, Caffee MW, Dunbar N, Edwards R, Geng L, Iverson N, Koffman B, Layman L, Maselli OJ, McGwire K, Muscheler R, Nishiizumi K, Pasteris DR, Rhodes RH, Sowers TA (2016) The WAIS Divide deep ice core WD2014 chronology - Part 2: Annual-layer counting (0-31 ka BP), Climate of the Past, 12, 769-786 (doi: 10.5194/cp-12-769-2016)
  11. Taylor K (2016), Introduction to special section on the WAIS Divide Special Issue of Paleoceanography, Paleoceanography, 31, 1474–1478, doi:10.1002/2016PA002995

2015

  1. Bauska TK, Joos F, Mix AC, Roth R, Ahn J, Brook EJ (2015) Links between atmospheric carbon dioxide, the land carbon reservoir and climate over the past millennium, Nature Geoscience, 8, 383-387 (doi:10.1038/ngeo2422)
  2. Buizert C, Cuffey KM, Severinghaus JP, Baggenstos D, Fudge TJ, Steig EJ, Markle BR, Winstrup M, Rhodes RH, Brook EJ, Sowers TA, Clow GD, Cheng H, Edwards RL, Sigl M, McConnell JR and Taylor KC (2015) The WAIS Divide deep ice core WD2014 chronology – Part 1: Methane synchronization (68-31 ka BP) and the gas age-ice age difference, Climate of the Past, 11, 153-173 (doi: 10.5194/cp-11-153-2015)
  3. Giese AL, Hawley RL (2015) Reconstructing thermal properties of firn at Summit, Greenland, from a temperature profile time series, Journal of Glaciology, 61(227), 503-510 (doi:10.3189/2015JoG14J204)
  4. Higgins JA, Kurbatov AV, Spaulding NE, Brook E, Introne DS, Chimiak LM, Yan Y, Mayewski P, Bender ML (2015) Atmospheric composition 1 million years ago from blue ice in the Allan Hills, Antarctica, Proceedings of the National Academies of Sciences, 112(22), 6887-6891 (doi:10.1073/pnas.1420232112)
  5. Klein ES, Nolan M, McConnell J, Sigl M, Cherry J, Young J, Welker JM (2015) McCall Glacier record of Arctic climate change: Interpreting a northern Alaska ice core with regional water isotopes, Quaternary Science Reviews, in press, 1-11 (doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2015.07.030)
  6. Mekhaldi F, Muscheler R, Adolphi F, Aldahan A, Beer J, McConnell JR, Possnert G, Sigl M, Svensson A, Synal H-A, Welten KC, Woodruff TE (2015) Multiradionuclide evidence for the solar origin of the cosmic-ray events of AD 774/5 and 993/4, Nature Communications, 6:8611 (doi: 10.1038/ncomms9611)
  7. Mitchell LE, Buizert C, Brook EJ, Breton DJ, Fegyveresi J, Baggenstos D, Orsi A, Severinghaus J, Alley RB, Albert M, Rhodes RH, McConnell JR, Sigl M, Maselli O, Gregory S, Ahn J (2015) Observing and modeling the influence of layering on bubble trapping in polar firn, Journal of Geophysical Research, 120(6), 2558-2574 (doi:10.1002/2014JD022766)
  8. Orsi AJ, Kawamura K, Fegyveresi JM, Headly MA, Alley RB, Severinghaus JP (2015) Differentiating bubble-free layers from melt layers in ice cores using noble gases, Journal of Glaciology, 61(227), 585-594 (doi:10.3189/2015JoG14J237)
  9. Rhodes RH, Brook EJ, Chiang JCH, Blunier T, Maselli OJ, McConnell JR, Romanini D, Severinghaus JP (2015) Enhanced tropical methane production in response to iceberg discharge in the North Atlantic, Science, 348(6238), 1016-1019 (doi:10.1126/science.1262005)
  10. Sigl M, Winstrup M, McConnell JR, Welten KC, Plunkett G, Ludlow F, Büntgen U, Caffee M, Chellman N, Dahl-Jensen D, Fischer H, Kipfstuhl S, Kostick C, Maselli OJ, Mekhaldi F, Mulvaney R, Muscheler R, Pasteris DR, Pilcher JR, Salzer M, Schüpbach S, Steffensen JP, Vinther BM, Woodruff TE (2015) Timing and climate forcing of volcanic eruptions for the past 2,500 years, Nature, advanced online publication (doi:10.1038/nature14565)
  11. WAIS Divide Project Members (2015) Precise interpolar phasing of abrupt climate change during the last ice age, Nature, 520, 661-665 (doi:10.1038/nature14401)

2014

  1. Aydin M, Fudge TJ, Verhulst KR, Nicewonger MR, Waddington ED, Saltzman ES (2014) Carbonyl sulfide hydrolysis in Antarctic ice cores and an atmospheric history for the last 8000 years, Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, 119(13), 8500-8514 (doi:10.1002/2014JD021618)
  2. Buizert C, Bagenstos D, Jian W, Purtschert R, Petrenko VV, Lu Z-T, Müller P, Kuhl T, Lee J, Severinghaus JP, Brook EJ (2014) Radiometric 81Kr dating identifies 120,000-year-old ice at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(19), 6876-6881 (doi:10.1073/pnas.1320329111)
  3. Buizert C, Cuffey KM, Severinghaus JP, Baggenstos D, Fudge TJ, Steig EJ, Markle BR, Winstrup M, Rhodes RH, Brook EJ, Sowers TA, Clow GD, Cheng H, Edwards RL, Sigl M, McConnell JR, Taylor KC (2014) The WAIS Divide deep ice core WD2014 chronology – Part 1: Methane synchronization (68–31 ka BP) and the gas age–ice age difference, Climate of the Past, 11, 153-173 (doi:10.5194/cp-11-153-2015)
  4. Fitzpatrick JJ, Voigt DE, Fegyveresi JM, Stevens NT, Spencer MK, Cole-Dai J, Alley RB, Jardine GE, Cravens ED, Wilen LA, Fudge TJ, McConnell JR (2014) Physical properties of the WAIS Divide ice core, Journal of Glaciology, 60(224), 1181-1198 (doi:10.3189/2014JoG14J100)
  5. Geng L, Alexander B, Cole-Dai J, Steig EJ, Savarin J, Sofen ED, Schauer AJ (2014) Nitrogen isotopes in ice core nitrate linked to anthropogenic atmospheric acidity change, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(16), 5808-5812 (doi:10.1073/pnas.1319441111)
  6. Geng L, Cole-Dai J, Alexander B, Erbland J, Savarino J, Schauer AJ, Steig Ej, Lin P, fu Q, Zatko MC (2014) On the origin of the occasional spring nitrate peak in Greenland snow, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14, 13361–13376 (doi:10.5194/acp-14-13361-2014)
  7. Keegan KM, Albert MR, McConnell JR, Baker I (2014) Climate change and forest fires synergistically drive widespread melt events of the Greenland Ice Sheet, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(22), 7964–7967 (doi:10.1073/pnas.1405397111)
  8. Koffman BG, Handley MJ, Osterberg EC, Wells ML, Kreutz KJ (2014) Dependence of ice-core relative trace-element concentration on acidification, Journal of Glaciology, 60(219), 103-112 (doi:10.3189/2014JoG13J137)
  9. Koffman BG, Kreutz KJ, Breton DJ, Kane EJ, Winski DA, Birkel SD, Kurbatov AV, Handley MJ (2014) Centennial-scale variability of the Southern Hemisphere westerly wind belt in the eastern Pacific over the past two millennia, Climate of the Past, 10, 1125-1144 (doi:10.5194/cp-10-1125-2014)
  10. Korotkikh EV, Mayewski PA, Dixon D, Kurbatov AV, Handley MJ (2014) Recent increase in Ba concentrations as recorded in a South Pole ice core, Atmospheric Environment, 89, 683-687 (doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.03.009)
  11. Marcott SA, Bauska TK, Buizert C, Steig EJ, Rosen JL, Cuffey KM, Fudge TJ, Severinghaus JP, Ahn J, Kalk ML, McConnell JR, Sowers T, Taylor KC, White JWC and Brook EJ (2014) Centennial-scale changes in the global carbon cycle during the last deglaciation, Nature, 514, 616–619 (doi:10.1038/nature13799)
  12. McConnell JR, Maselli OJ, Sigl M, Vallelonga P, Neumann T, Anschutz H, Bales RC, Curran MAJ, Das SB, Edwards R, Kipfstuhl S, Layman L, Thomas ER (2014) Antarctic-wide array of high-resolution ice core records reveals pervasive lead pollution began in 1889 and persists today, Scientific Reports, 4, 5848 (doi:10.1038/srep05848)
  13. Popp TJ, Hansen SB, Sheldon SG, Schwander J, Johnson JA (2014) Drilling into debris-rich basal ice at the bottom of the NEEM (Greenland) borehole, Annals of Glaciology, 55(68), 199-206 (doi:10.3189/2014AoG68A029)
  14. Schoenemann SW, Steig EJ, Ding Q, Markle BR, Schauer AJ (2014) Triple water-isotopologue record from WAIS Divide, Antarctica: controls on glacial-interglacial changes in 17Oexcess of precipitation, Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, 119(14), 8741-8763 (doi:10.1002/2014JD021770)
  15. Sigl M, McConnell JR, Toohey M, Curran M, Das SB, Edwards R, Isaksson E, Kawamura K, Kipfstuhl S, Kruger K, Layman L, Maselli O, Motizuki Y, Motoyama H, Pasteris DR, Severi M (2014) Insights from Antarctica on volcanic forcing during the Common Era, Nature Climate Change, 1–5 (doi:10.1038/nclimate2293)
  16. Sofen ED, Alexander B, Steig EJ, Thiemens MH, Kunasek SA, Amos HM, Schauer AJ, Hastings MG, Bautista J, Jackson TL, Vogel LE, McConnell JR, Pasteris DR, Saltzman ES (2014) WAIS Divide ice core suggests sustained changes in the atmospheric formation pathways of sulfate and nitrate since the 19th century in the extratropical Southern Hemisphere, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14, 5749-5769 (doi:10.5194/acp-14-5749-2014)
  17. Souney JM, Twickler MS, Hargreaves GM, Bencivengo BM, Kippenhan MJ, Johnson JA, Cravens ED, Neff PD, Nunn RM, Orsi AJ, Popp TJ, Rhoades JF, Vaughn BH, Voigt DE, Wong GJ, Taylor KC (2014) Core handling and processing for the WAIS Divide ice-core project, Annals of Glaciology, 55(68), 15-26 (doi:10.3189/2014AoG68A008)
  18. Yu P-L (2014) Ice Patch Archaeology and Paleoecology in Glacier National Park, Archaeology Program, National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior

2013

  1. Cole-Dai J, Ferris DG, Lanciki AL, Savarino J, Thiemens MH, McConnell JR (2013) Two likely stratospheric volcanic eruptions in the 1450s C.E. found in a bipolar, subannually dated 800 year ice core record, Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, 118, 7459–7466 (doi:10.1002/jgrd.50587)
  2. Koffman BG, Kreutz KJ, Kurbatov AV, Dunbar NW (2013) Impact of known local and tropical volcanic eruptions of the past millennium on the WAIS Divide microparticle record, Geophysical Research Letters, 40(17), 4712–4716 (doi:10.1002/grl.50822)
  3. Marion GM, Murray AE, Wagner B, Fritsen CH, Kenig F, Doran PT (2013) Carbon Sequestration and Release from Antarctic Lakes: Lake Vida and West Lake Bonney (McMurdo Dry Valleys), Aquatic Geochemistry, 19(2), 135-145 (doi:10.1007/s10498-012-9184-1)
  4. Mitchell L, Brook E, Lee JE, Buizert C, Sowers T (2013) Constraints on the Late Holocene Anthropogenic Contribution to the Atmospheric Methane Budget, Science, 342(6161), 964–966 (doi:10.1126/science.1238920)
  5. Sigl M, McConnell JR, Layman L, Maselli O, McGwire K, Pasteris D, Dahl-Jensen D, Steffensen JP, Vinther B, Edwards R, Mulvaney R, Kipfstuhl S (2013) A new bipolar ice core record of volcanism from WAIS Divide and NEEM and implications for climate forcing of the last 2000 years, Journal of Geophysical Research, 118, 1151–1169 (doi:10.1029/2012JD018603)
  6. Voigt DE, Peters LE, Anandakrishnan S (2013) 'Georods': the development of a four-element geophone for improved seismic imaging of glaciers and ice sheets, Annals of Glaciology, 54(64), 142-148 (doi:10.3189/2013AoG64A432)
  7. WAIS Divide Project Members (2013) Onset of deglacial warming in West Antarctica driven by local orbital forcing, Nature, 500, 440–444 (doi:10.1038/nature12376)

2012

  1. Bisiaux MM, Edwards R, McConnell JR, Curran MAJ, Van Ommen TD, Smith AM, Neumann TA, Pasteris DR, Penner JE, Taylor K (2012) Changes in black carbon deposition to Antarctica from two high-resolution ice core records, 1850-2000 AD, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12, 4107–4115 (doi:10.5194/acp-12-4107-2012)
  2. Lanciki A, Cole-Dai J, Thiemens TH, Savarino J (2012) Sulfur isotope evidence of little or no stratospheric impact by the 1783 Laki volcanic eruption, Geophysical Research Letters, 39(1) (doi:10.1029/2011GL050075)
  3. Murray AE, Kenig F, Fritsen CH, McKay Cp, Cawley KM, Edwards R, Kuhn E, McKnight DM, Ostrom NE, Peng V, Ponce A, Priscu JC, Samarkin V, Townsend AT, Wagh P, Young SA, Yung PT, Doran PT (2012) Microbial life at −13°C in the brine of an ice-sealed Antarctic lake, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(50), 20626-20631 (doi:10.1073/pnas.120)
  4. Neff PD, Steig EJ, Clark DH, McConnell JR, Pettit EC, Menounos B (2012) Ice-core net snow accumulation and seasonal snow chemistry at a temperate-glacier site: Mount Waddington, southwest British Columbia, Canada, Journal of Glaciology, 58(212), 1165-1175 (doi:10.3189/2012JoG12J078)

2011

  1. Battle MO, Severinghaus JP, Sofen ED, Plotkin D, Orsi AJ, Aydin M, Montzka SA, Sowers T, Tans PP (2011) Controls on the movement and composition of firn air at the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11, 11007-11021 (doi:10.5194/acp-11-11007-2011)
  2. Fegyveresi JM, Alley RB, Spencer MK, Fitzpatrick JJ, Steig EJ, White JWC, McConnell JR, Taylor KC (2011) Late-Holocene climate evolution at the WAIS Divide site, West Antarctica: bubble number-density estimates, Journal of Glaciology, 57(204), 629–638 (doi:10.3189/002214311797409677)
  3. Ferris DG, Cole-Dai J, Reyes AR, Budner DM (2011) South Pole ice core record of explosive volcanic eruptions in the first and second millennia A.D. and evidence of a large eruption in the tropics around 535 A.D., Journal of Geophysical Research, 116(D17) (doi:10.1029/2011JD015916)
  4. Mitchell (2011) Multidecadal variability of atmospheric methane, 1000–1800 C.E., Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 116(G2) (doi:10.1029/2010JG001441)

2010

  1. Kunasek SA, Alexander B, Steig EJ, Sofen ED, Jackson TL, Thiemens MH, McConnell JR, Gleason DJ, Amos HM (2010) Sulfate sources and oxidation chemistry over the past 230 years from sulfur and oxygen isotopes of sulfate in a West Antarctic ice core, Journal of Geophysical Research, 115(D18313) (doi:10.1029/2010JD013846)